Introduction To Diphtheria
One of the many diseases that are known to occur through the bacteria is Diphtheria. The bacteria that is responsible for it is known as the Corynebacterium Diphtheriae. The area affected by this disease is the upper part of the respiratory system, i.e. the throat and the neck area. It has the history of causing the maximum amount of deaths in the infants when it first broke out causing a high panic state and leading to all the country's giving it its due importance.
In the present scenario, it is one of the many diseases against which, vaccination is provided. This is the reason, it has been brought to almost zero in all the developed and also some of the under developed countries of the world. It is still prominent in regions where the temperatures are cold and adequate medical facilities are not available. Even though the cases of its spreading are limited to almost nothing, an outbreak of diphtheria can lead to a massive loss of human resources.
Cornebacterium Diphtheriae is a contagious disease and propagates through cough or spit that are excreted by the human. It multiplies in the mouth leading to swelling and inflammation. Once they have multiplied to a certain limit, they start working their way down the respiratory tract. They have a tendency to release a toxin which has the potential to do severe damage if it succeeds in mixing with the blood stream. The areas that can be damaged include the human heart, the kidneys and most importantly, the human nervous system. Apart from these major areas, it can affect the skin, the larynx, nose and the tonsils too.
The affect can be seen majorly in the infants and the children of smaller age groups. Since they have low resistance and immunity, they require more attention in this regard. In the adults, the affect may be minor with traces of infection on the outer skin. Another group of people who are targets to this disease are the ones who are unhygienic or have no vaccination. Others who can be at risk are the ones who live in highly populated areas in which, the transmission can be fairly easy. The age groups of people that are more exposed to diphtheria are the ones below 5 and the ones above 60 years of age.
The symptoms of diphtheria are pretty easy to understand. The best way to confirm its occurrence is by checking the far end of the throat for a thick gray covering which causes difficulty in breathing. Apart from that, one can experience throat pain, cold, blood and water flow through the nose etc.
The best way of prevention is vaccination which puts a stop to it from the beginning. There are ways to cure it in case it manages to break though the barriers, but it should not be the reason for not being careful. This disease is known to have a mortality rate of 15-20%, which is quite high for any form of medical illness.